What is an Exosome?
Exosomes are extracellular vesicles with the ability to promote skin repair, rejuvenation, and reduce inflammation. They are small sacs (30 – 100 nanometers) released and taken up by cells, about 1/1000th the size of the cells. Exosomes can transfer DNA, RNA, or proteins from one cell to another, influencing the function of the recipient cell. They serve as a means of communication between cells, often referred to as “cellular messengers.”
Exosomes are natural particles secreted into the extracellular environment by cells. Enclosed by a double-layered phospholipid membrane, these sacs contain various nucleic acids, lipids, and proteins. While known for about 50 years, the discovery of exosomes and their known functions dates back to the 1980s. Initially, they were thought to be responsible only for transporting cellular waste outside the cell.
However, further research revealed their involvement in various processes such as removing transferrin receptors during erythrocyte maturation, demonstrating immunological roles in beta-cells, and the discovery of various nucleic acid derivatives they harbor. Recent studies have shown that almost all body cells secrete exosomes, and they can be found in various body fluids such as breast milk, urine, saliva, sweat, serum, and plasma.
Exosomes send signals to the cells in the injected area to promote healthy functioning. They provide information to cells on how to regulate themselves using proteins sent to the cell membrane. Initially, they suppress the body’s inflammatory response, followed by a rapid onset of healing effects.
- Our body consists of over 200 different cell types, including special cells called stem cells. Stem cells have the ability to produce other cell types.
- These cells aid in tissue repair and contribute to our healing process.
- Exosomes derived from stem cells carry important messages to target cells, regulating paracrine hormone functions.
- They travel between cells and transfer numerous growth factors responsible for tissue repair and immune modulation.
Exosomes are excellent messengers with a written code. They work by repairing faulty or deficient cells, rejuvenating them much like young cells. Exosome treatment, performed with the mesotherapy technique, is a fast and long-lasting skin treatment that promotes skin rejuvenation. Exosomes are safely used in various skin conditions, including acne scars, eczema, rosacea, and skin discoloration. They are highly successful in reducing wrinkles on the face, creating vitality and radiance, addressing tissue loss, and healing chronic non-healing wounds.
Why Are Exosomes So Important?
Research in the 2000s has shown that exosomes contain mRNA among their biomolecules and can be transferred to recipient cells. Due to the cargo they carry, exosomes can regulate the gene expression of the target cell. Besides carrying biomolecules containing genetic information, exosomes also transport various signal molecules. These signal molecules, present inside exosomes, contribute to the regulation of relevant signal transmissions in the recipient cells. Exosomes enter recipient cells to deliver their contents, transporting genetic information and signal molecules.
Why Do Cells Secrete Exosomes?
Eukaryotic cells secrete exosomes, which are membrane-derived vesicles capable of reaching both distant and nearby cells. Eukaryotic cells produce exosomes for communication, protection, and sharing of genetic information. Functional receptors and secondary messengers are transported to target cells through exosomes. In all multicellular organisms, communication among cells is crucial for their harmonious and efficient functioning. This exchange of information between cells occurs through the secretion of soluble molecules or through direct interactions.
What Are the Effects of Exosomes?
- Skin rejuvenation
- Tightening of pores
- Anti-inflammatory effect
- Maintenance of skin barrier function
- Skin repair and regeneration
- Prevention of hair loss
- Anti-aging effect
- Elimination of skin blemishes
- Epidermal regeneration
- Wound healing
- Cell proliferation
- Prevention of itching
- Prevention of cell death
How Are Exosomes Obtained?
Exosome formation involves some biochemical processes that may seem simple at first glance but are essentially quite complex. In the initial step of formation, a portion of the cell membrane is taken into the cell (endocytosis). This membrane then folds into itself, creating a small vesicle called an intraluminal vesicle. Subsequently, a structure called “multivesicular body (MVB)” forms, which contains numerous vesicles. MVBs follow two different metabolic pathways:
- If an MVB has a low cholesterol level, it is broken down, joins the lysosome, and undergoes cellular recycling.
- MVBs with high cholesterol levels merge with the plasma membrane, and the contents of the MVB are released outside the cell. These waste materials are called exosomes. All these processes are tightly controlled by signaling mechanisms inside the cell. However, the exact mechanism regulating the balance between exosome secretion and the delivery of MVB vesicles to the lysosome is still being researched.
Exosomes are usually obtained by culturing and expanding stem cells in the laboratory and then isolating them from the supernatant of the medium in which they were grown. Exosomes are ultra-small, so the supernatant is concentrated through ultra-centrifugation. Apart from the supernatant of cell culture, exosomes can be obtained from various body fluids such as blood, urine, saliva, amniotic fluid, cerebrospinal fluid, joint fluid, nasal secretions, breast milk, serum, and plasma. While various methods based on immune-affinity and filtration techniques are used for exosome isolation, the most common method is ultra-centrifugation. This method, effective due to centrifugal forces, consists of a series of centrifugation steps with increasing centrifugal force and duration. At each centrifugation step, the heavier components in the supernatant, such as dead and live cells, cellular debris, and proteins, settle to the bottom, and the remaining liquid is collected for further processing through higher-speed centrifugation steps. After a series of centrifugation steps, exosomes are obtained from the cell culture supernatant.
How Are Exosomes Administered?
Exosome stem cell treatment serum is administered in a single session by injecting micro-needles into the face, neck, décolleté area, and back of the hands. Exosomes are also applied as a mesotherapy treatment to the scalp to increase hair density and revitalize existing hair. After applying local anesthetic cream, the procedure involves simple and painless injections with very fine needles. Patients can resume their daily activities immediately after the treatment, and the results become apparent within a short period.
Exosome Stem Cell Serum Contains:
The combination of 5 billion exosomes, 50 different growth factors, 3 different cytokines (Cytokines are proteins and peptides produced by animal and plant cells that facilitate communication between cells.), 96 mRNA, and 184 proteins associated with skin rejuvenation, vitamins, minerals, coenzymes, antioxidants, and high molecular weight hyaluronic acid.
- Vial 1:
- 5 Billion Pure Exosomes+,
- 50 Recombinant growth factors,
- 6 Biomimetic peptides,
- Amino acids,
- 4 Biomimetic peptides,
- Amino acids,
- High molecular weight HA.
Who Is Suitable for Exosome Stem Cell Therapy?
Exosome stem cell therapy is used as an adjunct treatment for many diseases today. Exosome stem cell therapy can be applied to all patients who require skin rejuvenation due to aging effects, tissue damage requiring skin repair, and other such conditions.
When Can the Effects of Exosome Stem Cell Therapy Be Seen?
To see the effects of exosome stem cell therapy, one needs to wait for the cells to renew themselves. The body’s self-repair process takes time. Immediately after the procedure, the skin appears more vibrant and youthful. Over time, as the skin’s repair mechanisms are activated, the effects of face lifting and tightening become apparent, acne scars and blemishes fade away, and the skin’s texture rejuvenates. While the initial effects are visible right after the treatment, the final results become evident after about 6 months on average and remain on the skin for many years.
Are There Any Side Effects of Stem Cell Therapy?
Exosome therapy, being a procedure based on cultured stem cells, does not have any side effects. Additionally, the body is not foreign to the injected components; hence, no allergic reactions occur. However, mild redness and sensitivity may occur at the injection site within the next day.
How Many Sessions of Exosome Stem Cell Therapy Are Needed?
Exosome therapy is performed in a single session.